This glossary provides a general guide to terms used in the BCAR’s communications monitor.
In addition, links to Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) publications are included to provide more detailed definitions of terms and how they are measured.
includes all paid and unpaid overtime but excludes hours paid for but not worked due to leave (e.g. annual, sick or maternity leave) or for any other reason (e.g. public holidays, meal breaks, time spent on travel to and from work).
Average gross (before tax) weekly earnings of employees (estimated weekly total earnings divided by estimated number of employees).
A business entry occurs when a business has newly registered for an ABN and is actively trading. Business entry rates are the total business entries during a financial year divided by the total businesses operating at the start of the financial year, multiplied by 100.
A business exit occurs when a business cancels its ABN or is no longer actively trading, and/or has ceased to remit GST for at least five consecutive quarters (or three consecutive years for annual remitters). Business exit rates are the total business exits during the financial year divided by the total businesses operating at the start of the financial year multiplied by 100.
Businesses are classified as:
- small—fewer than 20 employees
- medium—more than 20, but fewer than 200 employees, or
- large—200 or more employees.
A broadband internet that uses cable television infrastructure. The connection uses a coaxial cable or hybrid fibre coaxial (HFC) and is typically used as the 'last mile' or 'access network' technology (the connection between the ISP node and the subscriber premises).
Expenditure to acquire fixed physical and intangible (e.g. intellectual property) assets. Includes expenditure on:
- structures, buildings and dwellings, equipment and machinery and software
- work done by the employees or proprietors of a business in constructing, installing or repairing assets,
- in-house development of computer software, for use by the business or for rental or lease.
Measures a change in value arising purely from a change in quantity, that is, without including the effects of price changes. Changes in value over time typically reflect changes in both quantity (volume) and price, but chain volume measure (CVM) measures only the change in quantity.
The communications sector is defined for the purposes of this publication and incorporates the seven subdivisions in the information, media and telecommunications (IMT) industry division and the postal and courier pick-up delivery services industry subdivision of the transport, postal and warehousing (TPW) industry division, as defined under the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) system. This means that there are eight industry subdivisions within the communications sector, as follows:
- publishing (except internet and music publishing)
- broadcasting (except internet)
- telecommunications services
- library and information services
- motion picture and sound recording activities
- internet publishing and broadcasting
- internet service providers, web search portals and data processing services, and
- postal and courier pick-up and delivery services.
Total remuneration received by an employee from their employer, either in cash or in kind. It excludes unpaid voluntary work and taxes payable by the employer on their wage and salary bill (e.g. payroll tax).
Technologies that provide fast two-way digital data transmission over the local telephone network. The suite of technologies (collectively referred to as ‘xDSL’) includes asymmetrical digital subscriber line (ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+) and symmetrical digital subscriber line (SDSL).
The change in an economy’s size over time, as measured by the change in gross domestic product.
All persons aged 15 years and over who were engaged in one or more hours of work during the week as well as some persons temporarily absent from work, including on leave.
A fibre-optic cable connection running from an internet service provider directly to a user's premises. This includes fibre to the building (FTTB) but not fibre to the node (FTTN), which involves a fibre-optic connection from an ISP to a node, which is in turn connected to the user’s premises.
A terrestrial point-to-point microwave or radio link, generally building to building or tower to building, which allows subscribers to access the internet. Sender and
Ownership of part or all of a business by non-residents of Australia. There is no specific threshold above which a firm is considered to be foreign owned.
Employee numbers expressed in terms of the hours of a typical full-time employee (i.e. the FTE of a full-time staff member equals 1). The calculation of FTE for part-time staff is based on the proportion of time worked compared to that worked by full-time staff performing similar duties. The use of FTE enables comparisons of employee workloads across various contexts.
The final market value of all goods and services produced in Australia within a given period of time, less the cost of goods and services used in the process of production. It does not include depreciation of fixed assets.
In general terms refers to the income of a business generated from its operating activities in Australia, net of its input costs. It is measured as the firm’s gross output less its intermediate consumption, wages and taxes and includes any production and import subsidies. It is measured before deducting depreciation, dividends, interest, royalties and land rent, and direct taxes payable, but after deducting any adjustment for the value of inventories.
The hours worked by all labour engaged in the production of goods and services, including hours worked by civilian wage and salary earners, employers, self-employed persons, persons working one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm, and members of the Australian Defence Force.
Spending by Australian resident households either in Australia or abroad.
The value of goods imported into Australia and amounts payable to non-residents to provide services to Australian residents.
The value of an industry’s output less the value of the goods and services used as inputs into its production.
Refers to the different components that make up an industry’s output, including its intermediate inputs, labour costs (as measured by compensation of employees), profits (as measured by gross operating surplus), taxes associated with the industry’s output, and imports.
Information, media and telecommunications services division of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 2006 (ANZSIC06). It consists of entities mainly engaged in:
- creating, enhancing and storing information products in media that allows for their dissemination
- transmitting information products using analogue and digital signals (via electronic, wireless, optical and other means), and
- providing transmission services and/or operating the infrastructure to enable the transmission and storage of information and information products.
The IMT industry is a major subcomponent of the communications sector, which also includes an industry subdivision from the transport, postal and warehousing (TPW) industry division.
Any work that was intended to, or did, result in the introduction of an innovation in the provision of services (excludes goods).
The ABS defines innovation as ‘introduction of a new or significantly improved good or service; operational process; organisational/managerial process; or marketing method’.
The value of the goods and services used as inputs by a process of production, excluding compensation of employees and depreciation of fixed assets.
The process of transmitting and broadcasting television programs through the internet. A broadband connection is the medium of transmission for IPTV.
Australian individuals or businesses resident in Australia who offer internet access services to customers.
A measure of data transfer rate. A unit of data transfer that equates to one thousand bits per second.
In this publication, refers to growth over decades.
A measure of the rate of transfer of data (i.e. bandwidth). A unit of data transfer that equates to one million bits per second.
An internet connection which provides short range, high data rate connections between mobile data devices and access points connected to a network. Examples include mobile WiMax and 3G/4G accessed through a datacard, USB modem, tablet SIM card or any other device used to connect a computer to a cellular network (excluding a mobile handset). Mobile wireless internet subscriptions via a mobile handset are excluded from this category.
Measures the unexplained effect on output after the effect of inputs (typically labour and capital) are taken into account. Measured as an index of real GDP per combined unit of labour and capital and derived by dividing chain volume estimates of the portion of GDP produced by the ‘market’ (i.e. non-government) sector by a combined measure of hours worked and capital services.
Naked DSL refers to a DSL service that can be installed on a phone line that doesn't have an active phone number attached to it.
GDP for a given period measured using the prices in the corresponding period. It reflects the combined effects of changes in the quantity and price of output.
All inputs into production excluding labour. Includes intermediate consumption, which consists of the value of goods and services used as inputs, and the depreciation of fixed assets.
An industry’s profitability is measured in terms of its gross operating surplus.
A measure of GDP that adjusts for the impact of changes in price. In contrast, nominal GDP measures the combined effects of changes in output quantities and prices.
Systematic investigation or experimentation involving innovation or technical risk, the outcome of which is new knowledge, with or without a specific practical application, or new or improved products, processes, materials, devices or services. R&D activity extends to modifications to existing products/processes. R&D activity ceases and pre‑production begins when work is no longer experimental.
The services sector includes all industries other than the goods-producing industries of agriculture, forestry and fishing; mining; and manufacturing. Note that this is the definition adopted by the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, and the Productivity Commission. In contrast, the ABS definition excludes construction.
The number of internet connections. It does not indicate the number of 'users' and therefore, counts of subscribers are not the same as counts of people/organisations with internet access.
A measure of data download volume. A data unit of one thousand billion bytes, sometimes interpreted as 1024 gigabytes.
Measures the growth in a variable from one period to the same period in the following year. For example, for monthly data, it would be growth rate between a given month in one year and the same month in the following year.
The number of underemployed workers expressed as a percentage of the labour force. Underemployed workers are employed people who would prefer, and are available for, more hours of work than they currently have. They comprise:
- part-time workers who would prefer to work more hours and were available to start working more hours
- full-time workers who worked part-time hours for economic reasons (such as being stood down or insufficient work being available). It is assumed that these people would prefer to work full time and would have been available to do so.
A system for converting analogue signals to digital so that telephone calls may be made over the internet.